Category Archives: Maritime History

Poseidon’s Temple at Cape Sounion

Cape Sounion, at the southernmost tip of the Attica peninsula, is a promontory located appr. 70 kilometres (45 mi) south-southeast of Athens, Greece. The cape is the point for ships to enter the Saronic Gulf and reach the Port of Piraeus and the city of Athens and it’s an approximate cut-off point of the Aegean Sea.

According to Greek mythology and the founding myth of the city of Athens, Cape Sounion is the spot from where King Aegeus of Athens, leapt to his death off a cliff and thus giving his name to the sea. The Aegean Sea has been the backdrop of the Greek culture since historical records exist. It’s the sea where many city-states on smaller islands flourished, where great trade took place among Hellenistic and foreign peoples. To ancient Greeks in Athens, the Aegean Sea was the window to the world of the Dardanelles and the Black Sea (Hellespont, etc) to the north, to the eastern Mediterranean Basin (Phoenicians, Egyptians, etc) and to the western Mediterranean Basin (Romans, Carthaginians, etc) The Aegean Sea was the life and the blood of the ancient Greece (and of course, of the modern Greece).

What a better place for a temple to the god of Poseidon, brother of Zeus and a major deity among the Olympian gods, and the god in charge of keeping the seas and the waters in control? Cape Sounion is the location of a majestic temple to god of the seas, a great place from where to oversee his kingdom and stay in touch with his subjects, nested atop steep cliffs of appr. 60 meter high (200 ft), a place with commandeering views and fantastic sunsets, at the crossroads of the trading routes and still, a place close enough to the city of Athens.

Archaeological finds on the site date from as early as 700 BC. The original, Archaic-period temple of Poseidon on the site, was probably destroyed in 480 BC by Persian troops during Xerxes I’s invasion of Greece. The later temple at Sounion, whose columns still stand today, was probably built ca. 440 BC. This was during the ascendancy of the Athenian statesman Pericles, who also rebuilt the Parthenon in Athens. In 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War against the Spartans, the Athenians fortified the site with a wall and towers to prevent it from falling into Spartan hands. This would have threatened Athens’ seaborne grain supply route from Euboea.

The temple of Poseidon was constructed in 444–440 BC, over the ruins of a temple dating from the Archaic period. The design of the temple is a typical hexastyle, i.e., it had a front portico with six columns. It has been hypothesized that it would have closely resembled the contemporary and well-preserved Temple of Hephaestus beneath the Acropolis, which may have been designed by the same architect.

The Poseidon building, with a southeastern orientation, is rectangular, with a colonnade on all four sides. The total number of original columns was 34; only 18 columns still stand today. The columns are of the Doric Order. They were made of locally quarried white marble. They were 6.10 m (20 ft) high, with a diameter of 1 m (3.1 ft) at the base and 79 cm (31 inches) at the top.

At the center of the temple colonnade would have been the hall of worship (naos), a windowless rectangular room, similar to the partly intact hall at the Temple of Hephaestus. It would have contained, at one end facing the entrance, the cult image, a colossal, ceiling-height (6 meters (20 ft)) bronze statue of Poseidon. Probably covered in gold leaf, it may have resembled a contemporary representation of the god, appropriately found in a shipwreck, shown in the figure above. Poseidon was usually portrayed carrying a trident, the weapon he supposedly used to stir up storms. On the longest day of the year, the sun sets exactly in the middle of the caldera of the island of Patroklos, the extinct volcano that lies a mile offshore, suggesting astrological significance for the siting of the temple. The temple of Poseidon was destroyed in 399 by Emperor Arcadius.

Archaeological excavation of the site in 1906 uncovered numerous artifacts and inscriptions, most notably a marble kouros statue known as the Sounion Kouros and an impressive votive relief, both now in the Athens National Archaeological Museum. A column from the temple can be seen in the British Museum.


Certain material on the blog has been reproduced by Wikipedia; an article on Poseidon and images of a marble statue of the god (Poseidon of Milos) from the National Archaeological Museum in Athens can be found at a previous posting on this blog.


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Temple of Poseidon, Cape Sounion. As seen from the east side. Image credit: Karatzas Images

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Background info from the Department of Culture. Image credit: Karatzas Images.

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Additional background information. Image credit: Karatzas Images.

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Temple of Poseidon, Cape Sounion. As seen from the east side; view of the portico. Image credit: Karatzas Images

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Temple of Poseidon, Cape Sounion. As seen from the east side; the south colonnade. Image credit: Karatzas Images

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Temple of Poseidon, Cape Sounion. The south colonnade. Image credit: Karatzas Images

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Temple of Poseidon, Cape Sounion. As seen from the east side; the south colonnade and the portico. Image credit: Karatzas Images

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Temple of Poseidon, Cape Sounion. As seen from the east side; the south colonnade. Image credit: Karatzas Images

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Temple of Poseidon, Cape Sounion. As seen from the east side; south colonnade and portico. Image credit: Karatzas Images

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Temple of Poseidon, Cape Sounion. As seen from the west; south colonnade. Image credit: Karatzas Images

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Temple of Poseidon, Cape Sounion. As seen from the west; south colonnade and partial view of the north colonnade. Image credit: Karatzas Images

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Temple of Poseidon, Cape Sounion. Detail of a column head from the south colonnade. The simplicity of the Doric Order is imposing. Image credit: Karatzas Images

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Temple of Poseidon, Cape Sounion. As seen from northwest. Image credit: Karatzas Images

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Temple of Poseidon, Cape Sounion. As seen from northeast. Image credit: Karatzas Images

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Temple of Poseidon, Cape Sounion. As seen from the east with a typical sunset. A god would be pleased only with the very best! Image credit: Karatzas Images

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I would not mind a temple with such a view every evening! Image credit: Karatzas Images


© 2013 – present Basil M Karatzas & Karatzas Images.  All Rights Reserved.

IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:  Access to this blog signifies the reader’s irrevocable acceptance of this disclaimer. No part of this blog can be reproduced by any means and under any circumstances, whatsoever, in whole or in part, without proper attribution or the consent of the copyright and trademark holders of this website. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that information here within has been received from sources believed to be reliable and such information is believed to be accurate at the time of publishing, no warranties or assurances whatsoever are made in reference to accuracy or completeness of said information, and no liability whatsoever will be accepted for taking or failing to take any action upon any information contained in any part of this website.  Thank you for the consideration.

Poseidon – The Olympian God of the Sea

According to Greek mythology and the story of the genesis of the gods of Olympus (Olympian Gods), Poseidon was the god of the sea and protector of all aquatic features. He spent most of his time in his watery domain, although he was officially one of the supreme gods of Mount Olympus. Also, while there were various rivers personified as gods, these would have been technically under Poseidon’s sway. Similarly, Nereus, the Old Man of the Sea, wasn’t really considered on a par with Poseidon, who was known to drive his chariot through the waves in unquestioned dominance. Poseidon had married Titan Oceanus‘ daughter, and sea-nymph Amphitrite.

Poseidon was a son of Cronus (the youngest of the 12 Titans) and of Cronus’s sister and consort Rhea, a fertility goddess. Poseidon was a brother of Zeus, the sky god and chief deity of ancient Greece, and of Hades, god of the underworld. When the three brothers deposed their father, the kingdom of the sea fell by lot to Poseidon. Zeus became ruler of the sky, Hades got dominion of the Underworld and Poseidon was given all water, both fresh and salt. Poseidon was widely worshipped by seamen.

His weapon and main symbol was the trident, perhaps once a fish spear, with which he could make the earth shake, causing earthquakes, and shatter any object. According to the Greek poet Hesiod, Poseidon’s trident, like Zeus’s thunderbolt and Hades’ helmet, was fashioned by the three Cyclopes. He was second to Zeus in power amongst the gods. He was considered by Greeks to have a difficult quarrelsome personality. Combined with his greed, he had a series of disputes with other gods during his various attempts to take over the cities they were patrons of.

In dividing heaven, the watery realm and the subterranean land of the dead, the Olympians agreed that the earth itself would be ruled jointly, with Zeus as king. This led to a number of territorial disputes among the gods. Poseidon vied with Athena to be patron deity of Athens. The god demonstrated his power and benevolence by striking the Acropolis with his three-pronged spear, which caused a spring of salt water to emerge. Athena, however, planted an olive tree, which was seen as a more useful favor. Her paramount importance to the Athenians is seen in her magnificent temple, the Parthenon, which still crowns the Acropolis. The people of Athens were careful, all the same, to honor Poseidon as well.

At one point , Poseidon desired Demeter. To deter him, Demeter asked him to make the most beautiful animal that the world had ever seen. So, in an effort to impress her, Poseidon created the first horse. In some accounts, his first attempts were unsuccessful and created a variety of other animals in his quest; thus, by the time the horse was created, his passion for Demeter had diminished. Poseidon himself fathered many horses, best known of which was the winged horse Pegasus by the Gorgon Medusa.

The Romans’ name for Poseidon was Neptune.


On a recent summer visit at the National Archeological Museum in Athens, we have had the opportunity to take several pictures of the statue of Poseidon of Melos. According to Wiki Commons:

The Poseidon of Melos is a statue of Poseidon in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens (NAMA), with the inventory number 235, which is dated to the last quarter of the second century BC.

The statue was found in 1877 on the island of Melos. It is made of Parian marble and has a height of 2.35 metres, which makes it more than lifesize. The statue was found in several pieces, which have been reattached to one another. Portions of the left foot and of the himation are modern recreations. Parts of the nose, beard and hair are missing.

The sea god is depicted naked to the waist in an awe-inspiring pose, with his muscular right arm raised, probably in order to hold a trident (now lost). His himation hangs around his hips, covering his legs and genitals; he holds it in place at his side with his left hand. His back is also partially covered; a bit of cloth lies, mysteriously suspended, on his left shoulder. His weight rests on his right leg, his left leg is left free. The musculature of his arms and his body generally are very finely worked. The head is slightly tilted to the left and his gaze is directed into the distance. There is a dolphin behind the statue to the right, which serves as an additional support for the weight of the statue. The pose is a standard one for Poseidon, Zeus and Hades.

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Image of Olympian god Poseidon: larger-than-life statue made of Parian marble, known as ‘Poseidon of Melos’. Discovered in shipwreck in 1877. ca 125-100 BC. Image credit: Karatzas Images.

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Plaque at the base of statue ‘Poseidon of Melos’. Discovered in shipwreck in 1877. ca 125-100 BC. Image credit: Karatzas Images.

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Image of Olympian god Poseidon: larger-than-life statue made of Parian marble, known as ‘Poseidon of Melos’. Discovered in shipwreck in 1877. ca 125-100 BC. Image credit: Karatzas Images.

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Image of Olympian god Poseidon: larger-than-life statue made of Parian marble, known as ‘Poseidon of Melos’. Discovered in shipwreck in 1877. ca 125-100 BC. Image credit: Karatzas Images.

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‘Poseidon of Melos’. Throwing his trident. Upper torso detail. Image credit: Karatzas Images.

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‘Poseidon of Melos’. Upper torso detail. Image credit: Karatzas Images.

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‘Poseidon of Melos’. Upper torso detail. Image credit: Karatzas Images.

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‘Poseidon of Melos’. Upper torso detail. Image credit: Karatzas Images.

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‘Poseidon of Melos’. Detail of the head. ca 125-100 BC. Image credit: Karatzas Images.

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‘Poseidon of Melos’. Detail of the dolphin by the right foot of the statue. ca 125-100 BC. Image credit: Karatzas Images.

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‘Poseidon of Melos’. Detail of left hand supported at the waist, counter-balancing the right hand’s cast of the trident. ca 125-100 BC. Image credit: Karatzas Images.

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‘Poseidon of Melos’. View from the back. ca 125-100 BC. Image credit: Karatzas Images.

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Image of Olympian god Poseidon: larger-than-life statue made of Parian marble, known as ‘Poseidon of Melos’. Discovered in shipwreck in 1877. ca 125-100 BC. Image credit: Karatzas Images.

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Image of Olympian god Poseidon: larger-than-life statue made of Parian marble, known as ‘Poseidon of Melos’. Discovered in shipwreck in 1877. ca 125-100 BC. Image credit: Karatzas Images.

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Temple of the god of the sea Poseidon propitiously situated at Cape Sounion, a sharp promontory ca 65 km south of Athens. Image credit: Karatzas Images.


© 2013 – present Basil M Karatzas & Karatzas Images.  All Rights Reserved.

IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:  Access to this blog signifies the reader’s irrevocable acceptance of this disclaimer. No part of this blog can be reproduced by any means and under any circumstances, whatsoever, in whole or in part, without proper attribution or the consent of the copyright and trademark holders of this website. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that information here within has been received from sources believed to be reliable and such information is believed to be accurate at the time of publishing, no warranties or assurances whatsoever are made in reference to accuracy or completeness of said information, and no liability whatsoever will be accepted for taking or failing to take any action upon any information contained in any part of this website.  Thank you for the consideration.

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Key West Beach Rules

Treasure Hunting in Key West, Florida…

Of writers and poets and pirates                                                                                                           who walked the dirt beneath this path                                                                                                  each carrying a pocket full of dreams.                                                                                                    And none as unusual as yours,                                                                                                              but all of which came true.                                                                                                                                                  David L. Sloan                                                                                                                                                

Kew West_There's no place I'd rather be

Key West, There’s no place I’d rather be

Of poets and dreamers_SLOAN

Of writers, poets and pirates…

Write your worries in the sand

Write your worries in the sand… and let the sea wash them away

You can shake the sand off your shoes

Sand never leaves the soul…

Happines is

Toes in the water…

Home is where the ocean meets the shore

Where the ocean meets the shore…

sandy toes and salty kisses

Sandy toes and salty kisses!

Go jump in the ocean

Go jump in the ocean! – Can never be taken as an insult!

If you are lucky enough to be at the beach

if you are lucky enough to be at the beach…

On beach time

On beach time…

Beach rules

Beach rules…

Beach rules 2

And, more beach rules…

Captain's Rules

And, some Captain’s rules…

Crew knows best

The crew knows best!

same ship...different day

Same ship…different day! Not a good motto for a shipbroker!

No working on drinking hours

No working during drinking hours! – Well, how a shipbroker is supposed to get anything done then?

Dream require wide open seas

Wild dreams, open seas!

Inner compass

Inner compass!

Best ships are friendships

Best ships are friendSHIPS!

Shell warehouse

She sells sea shells by the sea shore! Key West!

Bart Roberts

‘In an honest service there is thin commons, low wages and hard labor; in this plenty and satiety, pleasure and ease, liberty and power… No, a merry life and a short one will be my motto.’                                                                                  Captain Bartholomew ‘Black Bart’ Roberts, Pirate

As legendary Steve Jobs once said: ‘It’s more fun to be a pirate than to join the Navy’!


 

© 2013-2015 Basil M Karatzas & Karatzas Marine Advisors & Co.  All Rights Reserved.

IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:  Access to this blog signifies the reader’s irrevocable acceptance of this disclaimer. No part of this blog can be reproduced by any means and under any circumstances, whatsoever, in whole or in part, without proper attribution or the consent of the copyright and trademark holders of this website. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that information here within has been received from sources believed to be reliable and such information is believed to be accurate at the time of publishing, no warranties or assurances whatsoever are made in reference to accuracy or completeness of said information, and no liability whatsoever will be accepted for taking or failing to take any action upon any information contained in any part of this website.  Thank you for the consideration.

The Salt of the Earth

There are crocodile tears, but salt tears are always the ones that are genuine, memorable, passionate and sometimes pedagogical. It has been said that the cure for everything is salt, in salt tears, sea water and sweat (Isak Dinesen). Although life cannot exist without salt, for those of us involved with seaborne affairs, whether for business or pleasure, salt has a center place in our lives. It’s not only the washing of a boat off the salt after a sailing excursion, it’s the constant attention to keep up with the rust caused by the corrosive yet life-living sea water effect on the steel – most prevalently seeing in the ballast tanks of ships. The ‘ball’ (Plimsoll Line engraved on the hull of the ships) is another indirect reminder of water salinity affecting trade by affecting the draft of ships. Even the Navy has on occasion used the so-named ‘Salt and Pepper’ uniform (black pants and white shirts for the summer), and more recently ‘SALT’ has become the ticker symbol for a publicly traded shipping company.

Salt everywhere!

Salt (NaCl, sodium chloride) is a mineral substance made of molecules of sodium and chlorine in equal amounts and forming a translucent, white, cubic crystal in its pure form. In strictly chemical terms, salts are created by the neutralizing reaction between an acid and a base. Naturally occurring salt is a crystalline mineral known as rock salt (halite); salt is also readily present in vast quantities in the sea as the main mineral constituent of sea water with concentration in the open ocean of approximately 35 grams (1.2 oz) per liter (3.5% salinity). Salt’s melting point is 801 °C (1,474 °F), its boiling point is 1,465 °C (2,669 °F), its freezing point is −21.12 °C (−6.02 °F at 23.31 wt% of salt), and the boiling point of saturated salt solution is around 108.7 °C (227.7 °F). Salt’s density is 2.17 grams per cubic centimeter and it is readily soluble in water.

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The Salty Waters of the Caribbean!

Rock salt (sel gemme in French, literally ‘gem salt), produced in salt mines, occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes, playas, and seas. Salt beds may be hundreds of meters thick and underlie broad areas. In the United States and Canada, extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts of Ontario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been essentially “squeezed up” from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock. Salt domes are a gross indication of the presence of trapped crude oil deposits underneath, and they have extensively been used for storage of crude oil underground (such as in the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve). Sea salt, also known as bay salt or solar salt, is produced by evaporation of seawater and primarily used for cooking and flavoring. Sea salt is readily produced in countries around the Mediterranean Sea, where the weather is hot and dry, through ‘salt pans’ (salt evaporation ponds) allowing for the seawater to evaporate. Salt water produced by evaporation can be Fleur del sel, sel gris, esprit du sel, and pink, black, and brown salts. In certain places, such in Kalloni, Lesbos, Greece, sea salt can naturally have higher iodine for the production of the much desirable iodized salt. Saltiness is one the five basic tastes, the rest being sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and umami.

Dissolved salt into water can abundantly be found in the open ocean; however, there are many salt water lakes worldwide with varying degrees of salinity. Most of such lakes (or ‘seas’ as some of them are known) are endorheic lakes (terminal lakes where water can flow in but cannot flow out, and only means of escape for water is by evaporation). The Dead Sea is the most famous of all with salinity ten times higher than ocean seawater where no life can exist; the Great Salt Lake in Utah, US, is considered ‘America’s Dead Sea’ with varying salinity ranging from twice to sevenfold of the open ocean. The Aral Sea in Kazakhstan, Lake Van in Turkey, Qinghai Lake China and Lake Urmia in Iran are other prominent salt lakes of our planet.

Salt has been known to humans from time immemorial, for its taste but also for its many uses and applications in life. Salt has had a prominent stage in different cultures and religions through the ages. 200 million years ago, Switzerland and Central Europe were covered by seawater. Due to tectonic shifts and the creation of the Alps, salt deposits were trapped deep in the mountains. Alpine salt has been mined for centuries in the Salt Mines of Bex. Spring water, traditional salt (Sel à l’Ancienne), taken directly from the saliferous rock, is high in minerals, and it is traditionally dried on larch wood.

Some of the earliest evidence of salt processing dates back to around 6,000 years ago, when people living in Romania were boiling spring water to extract the salts; a saltworks in China has been found dating to approximately same period. More modern records show a widespread culture of salt mining in Central Europe with mining taking place as early as in 800 B.C. Salzburg, Hallstatt, and Hallein lie within 17 km (11 mi) of each other on the river Salzach in central Austria in an area with extensive salt deposits. Salzach literally means ‘salt river and Salzburg ‘salt castle’, both taking their names from the German word Salz meaning salt and Hallstatt was the site of the world’s first salt mine. The town gave its name to the Hallstatt culture that began mining for salt in the area in about 800 BC. Around 400 BC, the townsfolk, who had previously used pickaxes and shovels, began open pan salt making. In the early years of the Roman Empire, roads such as the Via Salaria were built for the transportation of salt from the salt pans of Ostia to the capital. The Via Salaria (salt road) owes its name to the Latin word for ‘salt’, since it was the route by which the Sabines came to fetch salt from the marshes at the mouth of the Tiber, one of many ancient salt roads in Europe. During the first millennium BC, Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries.

The word salary originates from the Latin word salarium (meaning ‘money for salt’) which referred to the money paid to the Roman Army’s soldiers for the purchase of salt. The word salad literally means “salted” comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables.

Salt has been having many uses throughout history: seasoning / flavoring, preservation, disinfectant and cleaning agent (soaking / washing infected body parts with salted water or treating a sore throat by gargling with salt water, burial (salt was one of the spices that was traditionally used to prepare a body for burial, in biblical times), unit of exchange (in biblical times, salt was considered quite a valuable mineral, a commodity for trading in the marketplace) and thawing and melting ice (used even in our times for iced roads).

The most important value of salt throughout history has been its use as a preservative (desiccant or substance that promotes drying). Salt has also hygroscopic properties (absorbing moisture from the atmosphere) thus maintaining a dry atmosphere which contributes to preservation most notably in closed environments (caves, underground vaults, etc). Salt also draws water out of cells via the process of osmosis (water moves across a cell membrane in an attempt to equalize the salinity or concentration of salt on both sides of the membrane). As early as 3,000 BC Ancient Egyptians of the Old Kingdom were preserving meat and fish with salt, and the first Europeans in America experienced great commercial success when they learned to salt the fish they caught in order to transport it to their home markets. Some products are preserved using fermentation through salting since salt dehydrates the growing medium and acts to maintain fluids in the yeast or mold growing environment (cheeses, etc). Un-iodized salt, free from anti-caking agents, is used for this type of preservation.

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Da Vinci’s ‘Last Supper’ – Judas spilling the salt (Image source: Wiki Commons)

Salt in ancient times was a valuable commodity due to its scarcity to the common people and high price, and as such a symbol of trust and friendship. In ancient times, Romans gave salt, and thus wisdom, to newborns. Guests were presented with salt as a gesture of friendship, which may be reflected in Cicero’s ‘Nemini fidas, nisi cum quo prius multos modios salis absumpseris’ (‘trust no one unless you have eaten much salt with him’) – we call it ‘breaking bread’ and ‘business lunch’ in our times. A German proverb held that ‘whoever spills salt arouses enmity’. The 1556 Hieroglyphica of Piero Valeriano Bolzani reports that “salt was formerly a symbol of friendship, because of its lasting quality. For it makes substances more compact and preserves them for a long time: hence it was usually presented to guests before other food, to signify the abiding strength of friendship. Wherefore many consider it ominous to spill salt on the table, and, on the other hand, propitious to spill wine, especially if unmixed with water.” Salt can disappear but cannot de-materialize even when dissolved into a liquid such as water since it will appear once again as soon as the water evaporates, and thus the symbolism of loyalty, trust and friendship. In the ‘Last Supper’ (Il Cenacolo, or L’Ultima Cena) painted by Leonardo da Vinci in 1494 – 1498, Judas Iscariot is tipping over the salt cellar with his elbow. Spilling salt had been a sign of bad luck and also a sign of betrayal referring to the near-Eastern expression to ‘betray the salt’ meaning to betray one’s Master.

Salting the earth, or sowing with salt, had been the ritual of spreading salt on conquered cities to symbolize a curse on their re-inhabitation. It originated as a symbolic practice in the ancient Near East and became a well-established folkloric motif in the Middle Ages. An ancient legend says that Odysseus feigned madness by yoking a horse and an ox to his plow and sowing salt. Tossing salt however can be a favorably superstitious sign in certain cases, to avert the evil omen, as the common contemporary gesture of tossing a pinch of the spilt salt over one’s left shoulder, into the face of the Devil who lurks there.

Great Salt Lake_Image source_NASA

The Great Salt Lake (Image source: NASA)

Salt has also a prominent place in religion as well. Salt is used to make holy water in the Roman Catholic Church rite, and as such figures as a religious symbol of sanctity, associated with exorcism. In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus Christ says to His people “You are the salt of the earth. But if the salt loses its saltiness, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything, except to be thrown out and trampled by men.” (Matthew 5:13), meaning that the people of God were to stand out from the rest of the world and impact others in a positive way. In the Old Testament (Ezekiel 16:4) newborn babies were rubbed with salt (“As for your nativity, on the day you were born your navel cord was not cut, nor were you washed in water to cleanse you; you were not rubbed with salt nor wrapped in swaddling cloths”) meaning that rubbing a newborn with salt is to indicate that the child would be raised to have integrity, to always be truthful. Still in the Old Testament, Genesis 19, when the angel commands Lot and his family to “Flee for your life! Do not look behind you, nor stop anywhere in the Plain; flee to the hills, lest you be swept away”, Lot’s wife turns into a pillar of salt when she glances over her shoulder to see the destruction (burning sulfur over) of city of Sodom. Sodom, a city close to the Dead Sea, a sea well known through history for its salt rocks and tenfold salinity of the open sea, was enjoying the riches (and much more…) of closeby salt deposits, and Lot’s wife is punished by the same token that made their city notorious. The Scriptures don’t say whether her death was a punishment for valuing her old life so much that she hesitated in obeying, or if it was a simple consequence of her reluctance to leave her life quickly.
Besides having a well-referenced presence in religion, salt has been the cause of political resistance and even revolution through the ages. There was a time when people were paying a ‘salt tax’ (a tax levied directly on salt, usually proportional to the amount of salt purchased – salt was extremely valuable as a preservant, and, in some cultures, nearly worth its weight in gold). How would one ever thought of a ‘salt tax’? But again, today we have no issue paying a ‘federal communications tax’ on our mobile phone bill just to communicate! Salt offered an easy target for taxation for the authorities, but equally well, offered a highly visible target for social effort to dodge paying or even repealing the tax which fuelled human antipathy and revolt on repeated yet different historical circumstances.

The Salt War of 1540 was a result of an insurrection by the city of Perugia against the Papal States during the pontificate of Pope Paul III (Alessandro Farnese). Pope Paul III decided to levy a new tax on salt for all his subjects, revoking treaties between Perugia and previous popes, treaties which Paul III had confirmed at the beginning of his pontificate. Perugian protests were to no avail and the Perugians decided to rebel. On on 4 June 1540, papal troops, led by the pope’s very own son (Pierluigi Farnese), forced Perugias to surrender. Shortly thereafter, the enormous fortress Rocca Paolina (Pauline Fortress) was constructed not to protect Perugia, but, in Julius III’s words, “to slow down the burning of the Perugians and get rid of the opportunity to rebel against the Holy See”. The fort was for centuries a symbol of oppressive papal rule, and despite the fact that a later Pope, Julius III, gave the Perugians back a semblance of local rule in 1559, the city became part of the Papal States and remained so until Italian unification in 1860.

The Salt Riot, also known as the Moscow Uprising of 1648, started because of the government’s replacement of different taxes with a universal salt tax for the purpose of replenishing the state treasury after the Time of Troubles. This drove up the price of salt, leading to violent riots in the streets of Moscow. The riot was an early challenge to the reign of Alexei I, eventually resulting in the exile of Alexei’s advisor Boris Morozov. Salt tax was a factor of the French Revolution as well: the gabelle (from the Italian gabella (a tax), itself from the Arabic qabala) was a very unpopular tax on salt in France before 1790. In France, gabelle was originally applied to taxes on all commodities, but was gradually limited to the tax on salt. In time it became one of the most hated and most grossly unequal taxes in the country. It was abolished in 1790, then reinstated by Napoleon in 1806; abolished briefly by the French Second Republic, and then finally abolished permanently in 1945. Salt taxation was also a point of the events during the Swiss Peasant War in 1653.

Salt played a role during the Civil War in the United States as well. Salt not only preserved food in the days before refrigeration, but was also vital in the curing of leather. Union general William Tecumseh Sherman once said that “salt is eminently contraband”, as an army that has salt can adequately feed its men. The most important saltworks for the Confederacy were at Saltville, Virginia. In late 1864, the Union army twice advanced to capture the saltworks, as it was the last prominent source of salt for the eastern Confederate states. The October 1864 Battle of Saltville I saw the Confederate able to repulse the charge, but the next December in the Battle of Saltville II Union forces under George Stoneman managed to destroy the vital saltworks. Two months later the salt works were back to work for the Confederacy, although the destroyed railroad system around the area hampered its distribution. It is said that Florida’s greatest contribution to the Confederate war effort was in producing salt. Floridian salt plants worked 24 hours a day employing 5,000 workers (a popular profession at the time since they were immune to drafting) boiling salt from sea water, mostly in the area between Saint Andrews Bay and St. Marks, Florida.

The Salt March, better known as the Salt Satyagraha, began with the Dandi March on 12 March 1930, and led to the Indian independence movement. Mahatma Gandhi led the Dandi march from his base, Sabarmati Ashram near Ahmedabad, to the coastal village of Dandi in the state of Gujarat. As he continued on this 24-day, 240-mile (390 km) march to produce salt without paying the tax, growing numbers of Indians joined him along the way. It was a direct action campaign of tax resistance and nonviolent protest against the British salt monopoly in colonial India, and triggered the wider Civil Disobedience Movement. When Gandhi broke the salt laws, it sparked large scale acts of civil disobedience against the British Raj salt laws by millions of Indians. The campaign had a significant effect on changing world and British attitude towards Indian independence and caused large numbers of Indians to join the fight for the first time.

No wonder that in the Malagasy language (in Madagascar) they have the same word for ‘salt’ and ‘sacred’: fanasina. Salt sacred for the existence of life itself, and sacred for its flavor to life and all the pleasures and endeavors herewith, from sailing ships to swimming in the salty cobalt waters of the Pacific, the jade and turquoise waters of the Caribbean to the azure waters of the Mediterranean Sea!

Navagio

Greek blues! Enough salt to flavor a lifetime!

Idioms and Expressions of Salt:

According to Merriam-Webster dictionary and old salt is an experienced sailor, a seafaring man. An ‘old salt’ in the English speaking naval services is often a raconteur, or teller of sea stories. Much of the history and traditions of the naval services are passed from generation to generation of service members by these sea stories as told and retold by old salts.

Back to the salt mines: time to return to work, school, or something else that might be unpleasant conjuring the image of the image of menial labor working in salt mines.

To eat someone’s salt: to be someone’s guest. (Example: The least you can do when you’re eating someone’s salt is to help them out around the house.)

Salt of the earth: the most worthy of people; a very good or worthy person. (A biblical reference, Matthew 5:13.)

To take something with a pinch / grain of salt and take something with a grain of salt: to listen to a story or an explanation with considerable doubt.

Worth one’s salt: worth (in productivity) what it costs to keep or support one.

To sit below the salt: To be of a low social rank. This phrase, first seen in print around 1597, comes from European dining halls where the host sat at the head of the dining table, and his guests were seated in order of importance along the sides. The salt cellar was placed in the middle of a dining table, which caused another division. Those seated below this point were considered the lowest ranking people at the table.

To salt away: to put money in savings, wherever it comes from. In ancient times, salt was very valuable and was used to pay soldiers in the Roman army. Our modern word “salary” comes from the Latin word for salarium (paying in salt).

To have something hung up and salted: to know everything about something. (Often meant ironically)

To salt something down: to place salt on something, such as icy roads

Please, pass the salt!


 

© 2013-2014 Basil M Karatzas & Karatzas Marine Advisors & Co.  All Rights Reserved.

IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:  Access to this blog signifies the reader’s irrevocable acceptance of this disclaimer. No part of this blog can be reproduced by any means and under any circumstances, whatsoever, in whole or in part, without proper attribution or the consent of the copyright and trademark holders of this website. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that information here within has been received from sources believed to be reliable and such information is believed to be accurate at the time of publishing, no warranties or assurances whatsoever are made in reference to accuracy or completeness of said information, and no liability whatsoever will be accepted for taking or failing to take any action upon any information contained in any part of this website.  Thank you for the consideration.

USS ‘Texas’ (BB-35)

Images of historic Battleship USS „Texas” (BB-35)

Present Location:
3523 Independence Parkway South
LaPorte, TX 77571

Name: USS Texas
Namesake: State of Texas
Ordered: 24 June 1910
Builder: Newport News Shipbuilding Company
Cost: $5,830,000
Laid down: 17 April 1911
Launched: 18 May 1912
Sponsored by: Claudia Lyon
Commissioned: 12 March 1914
Decommissioned: 21 April 1948
Struck: 30 April 1948
Nickname: Big T, Old T
Honors and
awards:
5 Battle Stars
Status: Museum ship at San Jacinto State Park

According to Wikipedia, USS „Texas” (BB-35) is a New York-class battleship launched on 18 May 1912 and commissioned on 12 March 1914.

Soon after her commissioning, USS „Texas” saw action in Mexican waters following the “Tampico Incident” and made numerous sorties into the North Sea during World War I. When the United States formally entered World War II in 1941, USS „Texas” escorted war convoys across the Atlantic, and later shelled Axis-held beaches for the North African campaign and the Normandy Landings before being transferred to the Pacific Theater late in 1944 to provide naval gunfire support during the Battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa. USS „Texas” was decommissioned in 1948, having earned a total of five battle stars for service in World War II, and is now a museum ship near Houston, Texas.

Among the world’s remaining battleships, USS „Texas” is notable for being the only remaining dreadnought battleship, though she is not the oldest surviving battleship; Mikasa, a pre-dreadnought battleship ordered in 1898, is older than USS „Texas” . She is also noteworthy for being one of only six remaining ships to have served in both World Wars. Among US-built battleships, USS „Texas” is notable for her sizable number of firsts: the first US Navy vessel to house a permanently assigned contingent of US Marines, the first US battleship to mount anti-aircraft guns, the first US ship to control gunfire with directors and range-keepers (analog forerunners of today’s computers), the first US battleship to launch an aircraft, from a catapult on Turret 3, one of the first to receive the CXAM-1 version of CXAM production radar in the US Navy, the first US battleship to become a permanent museum ship, and the first battleship declared to be a US National Historic Landmark.

Official Website at Texas Parks & Wildlife website, please click here!


 

USS TEXAS 1

Historic Battleship launched in 1912 USS „Texas” at LaPorte, TX in the San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site. http://www.karatzas.com

USS TEXAS 2

Historic Battleship launched in 1912 USS „Texas” at LaPorte, TX in the San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site. http://www.karatzas.com

USS TEXAS 3

Historic Battleship launched in 1912 USS „Texas” at LaPorte, TX in the San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site. http://www.karatzas.com

USS TEXAS 4

Historic Battleship launched in 1912 USS „Texas” at LaPorte, TX in the San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site. http://www.karatzas.com

USS TEXAS 5

Historic Battleship launched in 1912 USS „Texas” at LaPorte, TX in the San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site. http://www.karatzas.com

USS TEXAS 6

Historic Battleship launched in 1912 USS „Texas” at LaPorte, TX in the San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site. http://www.karatzas.com

USS TEXAS 7

Historic Battleship launched in 1912 USS „Texas” at LaPorte, TX in the San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site. http://www.karatzas.com

USS TEXAS 8

Historic Battleship launched in 1912 USS „Texas” at LaPorte, TX in the San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site. http://www.karatzas.com

USS TEXAS 9

Historic Battleship launched in 1912 USS „Texas” at LaPorte, TX in the San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site. http://www.karatzas.com

USS TEXAS 10

Historic Battleship launched in 1912 USS „Texas” at LaPorte, TX in the San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site. http://www.karatzas.com

USS TEXAS 11

Historic Battleship launched in 1912 USS „Texas” at LaPorte, TX in the San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site. http://www.karatzas.com

USS TEXAS 13

Historic Battleship launched in 1912 USS „Texas” at LaPorte, TX in the San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site. http://www.karatzas.com

USS TEXAS 14

Historic Battleship launched in 1912 USS „Texas” at LaPorte, TX in the San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site. http://www.karatzas.com


© 2013-2014 Basil M Karatzas & Karatzas Marine Advisors & Co.  All Rights Reserved.

IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:  Access to this blog signifies the reader’s irrevocable acceptance of this disclaimer. No part of this blog can be reproduced by any means and under any circumstances, whatsoever, in whole or in part, without proper attribution or the consent of the copyright and trademark holders of this website. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that information here within has been received from sources believed to be reliable and such information is believed to be accurate at the time of publishing, no warranties or assurances whatsoever are made in reference to accuracy or completeness of said information, and no liability whatsoever will be accepted for taking or failing to take any action upon any information contained in any part of this website.  Thank you for the consideration.

Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’

We often tend to pay special honors, and rightly so, to the crucial battles that took place at decisive moments and changed the course of a war or possibly history, and we often tend to put special emphasis on the bigger than life generals and admirals who were the protagonists and their landmark battlefields and flagships, while the ‘smaller’ efforts and ingenuity to make the battleships and flagships victorious are often referred to the little known minutia of great story telling and away from the attention of the headlines. While we were celebrating ‘D Day’ recently and the landing of the Allied forces at the beaches of Normandy, and while in Greece attending Posidonia, we had the serendipitous opportunity to attend a special event and visit a ship that perfectly fits the concept of the ‘unsung hero’.

During World War II, Nazi U-boats sank in the Atlantic about 3,000 Allied ships, about 2,800 of which were merchant ships; assuming that WWII lasted six years, the rate of casualties were almost one ship per diem in the Battle of the Atlantic. With the US as the only Allied power with its infrastructure intact, there had to be a quick way to move troops, ammunition, provisions, equipment, etc across the Atlantic and to the battlefields, in a sort of a floating pipeline, despite the efforts and successes of the Nazi U-boats to keep supplies short. The answer to a seaway ‘conveyor’ was to keep building cheap ships fast; actually keep building them faster than the Nazis could sink them.

Cargo ships that were built during WWII under the directive to supply the Allied forces eventually came to be known as ‘Liberty Ships’. At a nominal cost of $2 mil (about $34 mil today), 2,710 such vessels were built in eighteen shipyards in the US. The original design was based on British vessel designs developed in the late 19th century; however, adapting the design in the US, several modifications were adopted in order to make the vessels slightly larger, but more importantly, cheaper and easier to build. Riveting in the original design gave place to welding, thus providing one-third savings in labor costs. Two oil-fired boilers were installed and the engine was a simple triple expansion steam engine of 2,500 hp output that could propel the 10,000 dwt vessel at 11 knots (steam turbines engines were known at the time, but they more complicated to build as more precise, and such building capacity was reserved for navy ships). These US-modified ships were designated as ‘EC2-S-C1’: ‘EC’ for Emergency Cargo, ‘2’ for a ship between 400 and 450 feet (120 and 140 m) long (Load Waterline Length), ‘S’ for steam engines, and ‘C1’ for design C1.

Approximately 2,400 Liberty Ships survived WWII and more 800 of them used afterwards as cargo / merchant vessels. Three of these Liberty Ships survive today in whole: two of them are fully operational and used as museum ships (SS „John W. Brown” in Norflok and SS „Jeremiah O’Brien” in San Francisco), and a third vessel has been fully restored – but not operational as a ship, in Piraeus, Greece: SS „Hellas Liberty”, originally built as SS “Arthur M. Huddell”.

Greek shipowners acquired about 525 of the remaining ships after WWII, on favorable terms as compensation for their and Greece’s heavy casualties in shipping during the war (the exact circumstances of the transfer can be debatable), and these vessels constituted the ‘seed fleet’ of many Greek owners and their springboard to the top leagues of world shipping. Onassis, Livanos, Niarchos, Theodoracopoulos, Goulandris are a few of the well-known shipping names acquiring Liberty Ships. The truth is that these ‘ugly ducklings’ were built in less than ten days on average, and they were never intended to be quality ships; they were the original ‘disposal’ items of our society when it was expected that most of them would not last more than two-three crossings of the Atlantic, so no special attention was given to quality and durability. When Greek owners were buying them on preferential terms, they were cheap ships expected to last a few years and not the several decades that some of the Greek owners managed to squeeze out of them.

It’s natural then that ‘Liberty Ships’ have a special place in the Greek shipping psyche.

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The bow of SS „Liberty Hellas”

Upon efforts initiated by shipowner Spyros Polemis of Remi Maritime, and after significant lobbying in the US, President Bush 43rd signed legislation passing ownership of the vessel SS „Arthur M Huddell” to the Greek committee in 2008. The vessel had been at lay-up since 1984 and he was in severe state of decay in Norfolk, Virginia, when ownership was passed to the Greek committee; further, the vessel had been cannibalized for parts, including losing her rudder and propeller, for the surviving vessels SS „John W Brown” and SS „Jeremiah O’Brien”. The Greek committee had to arrange for ocean-going towing at its own cost and risk to bring the vessel to Greece in late 2008 and eventually the vessel finished restorations in 2010. Many people in Greece and abroad, in shipping and in other industries, gave generously of their time, efforts, love and money for the vessel to be restored with Captain Vassilis Konstantakopoulos (now deceased) founder of Costamare being instrumental in the efforts, including providing most of the funding, rumored to be approaching $10 million.

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A deck from another age…

The keel of SS „Arthur M Huddell” (IMO No 5025706) was laid in late October 1943 and the vessel was launched in December of same year from St. Johns River Shipbuilding, Jacksonville, Florida. She’s 441 ft 6’’ long (134.6 m) with a molded beam of 56 ft and 10.75’’ (17.3 m) and draft of 25ft and 3.25’’ (7.7 m). Typical to a ‘Liberty Ship’ arrangement, she has five cargo holds which were sub-sectioned, almost similar to a tweendeck vessel, with the lower section of the holds able to store either dry bulk or liquid cargoes. Once upon her delivery, she carried explosives to Europe during her first voyages, and later in 1944 she was partially converted to a pipe carrier by modifying her two aft cargo holds. The vessel was used under the PLUTO operation, laying an undersea pipeline between England and France during WWII in order to provide fuel the armies following the Normandy landing. After the end of the war, the vessel was laid up until 1956, when chartered to AT&T and converted to a cable laying vessel. SS „Arthur M Huddell” had been in cold lay up from 1984 until her donation to the Greek committee in 2008. The vessel, unlike most of the Liberty vessels, has remained under the ownership of the US government throughout her life and she has never been sold and being part of the world merchant marine.

During restorations at Salamis and Perama in Greece, several hundred tons of bird droppings had to be removed from outdoor and indoor areas, several tons of steel plate had to be replaced, several original, vintage or comparable parts from the era had to be sourced, as well as a new propeller and rudder (not original design however). The engine has been restored but presently not operational. The cargo hold immediately aft of the accommodation has been arranged as exhibit space, while cargo hold #3 immediately forward of the accommodation has been arranged to a reception hall for conferences and receptions.

The vessel is presently docked within the property of the Port of Piraeus and open to the public. Still minor restoration work takes place and the ship is in the process of gearing up to fully operational status as a museum ship. A tour of SS „Hellas Liberty” offers an opportunity to transcend time and travel through history, to times when ships were much simpler than today’s, when navigation was a skill indeed and dependent on rudimentary instrumentation and natural observations; bridge officers had to make do with a wheel, a gyrocompass and a magnetic compass and no more; next to the wheelhouse, on each side, one can observe the chart-room and another hot room filled with bulky equipment from where the ship’s ‘Marconi’ could communicate wirelessly with the outside world. In today’s ships, neither of these functions commands much space as charts now are in digital form and displayed on a screen and the communications room has shrunk to a couple of satellite phones.

Liberty ships had been silent but instrumental factors for the outcome of the war effort. This out-of-necessity heavy ‘investment’ by the US-government in shipbuilding won the war effort, but also had many complimentary desirable effects; a small example: modifications for more efficient design and a streamlined production process allowed famous naval architect William Francis Gibbs to fine tune his approach to shipbuilding that eventually led to the construction of his masterpiece, SS „United States”. Liberty ships through private ownership after the war have been instrumental in rebuilding the world economies, primarily the European ones, and Greek shipowners and Greek shipping owe a great amount of debt to the circumstances and the design of these ships that provided the springboard to the world shipping stage. And, the efforts to save and restore the vessel to her original condition is testament to the historical value as her whole class.

It has been a journey for the ship worth the costs and efforts and the visit to the ship worth a profound maritime lecture.

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Museum Ship SS „Hellas Liberty”


 

© 2013-2014 Basil M Karatzas & Karatzas Marine Advisors & Co.  All Rights Reserved.

IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:  Access to this blog signifies the reader’s irrevocable acceptance of this disclaimer. No part of this blog can be reproduced by any means and under any circumstances, whatsoever, in whole or in part, without proper attribution or the consent of the copyright and trademark holders of this website. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that information here within has been received from sources believed to be reliable and such information is believed to be accurate at the time of publishing, no warranties or assurances whatsoever are made in reference to accuracy or completeness of said information, and no liability whatsoever will be accepted for taking or failing to take any action upon any information contained in any part of this website.  Thank you for the consideration.

MUSEUM SHIP SS ‘HELLAS LIBERTY’ (Images, Part II)

MUSEUM SHIP SS ‘HELLAS LIBERTY’ (ex- SS ‘Arthur M. Huddell’)

SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ in Piraeus Port, Greece after major restoration (2010)
Namesake: union leader Arthur M. Huddell (1869-1931)
Ordered: MCE hull 1215
Builder: St. Johns River Shipbuilding, Jacksonville, Florida
Laid down: 25 October 1943
Launched: 7 December 1943
Christened: SS ‘Arthur M. Huddell’
Refit: 1944
Sold for preservation to Greece in 2008, and after extensive restoration was converted to museum ship, re-flagged under the Flag of Greece and re-named SS ‘Hellas Liberty’. Presently moored at the Port of Piraeus, Greece.

General characteristics
SS ‘Arthur M Huddel’, IMO: 5025706, is a Liberty ship built by St. Johns River Shipbuilding Company with keel laid 25 October 1943 and the yard workers working overtime to launch on 7 December 1943 and complete outfitting nine days later.                                                             Type: General cargo

Displacement: (as built) 14,257 (fl) tons
Length: 441 feet 6 inches (134.6 m)
Beam: (molded) 56 feet 10.75 inches (17.3 m)
Draft: (as built) 25 feet 3.25 inches (7.7 m)
Installed power: Two Combustion Engineering oil-fired boilers
Propulsion: Filer and Stowell triple expansion, reciprocating engine; 2,500-shaft horsepower (shp)
Speed: 11 knots
Range: 19,000 nautical miles

SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ is one of three Liberties remaining afloat, with the others being SS ‘John W. Brown’ and SS ‘Jeremiah O’Brien’ in the United States.


 

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Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – Liberty Ship built in 1944 at St. Johns River Shipbuilding, USA; restored and converted to museum ship in 2008 – 2010 in Greece.

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Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – Liberty Ship built in 1944 at St. Johns River Shipbuilding, USA.

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Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – Liberty Ship built in 1944 at St. Johns River Shipbuilding, USA; restored and converted to museum ship in 2008 – 2010 in Greece. (Portside view looking aft)

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Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – Liberty Ship built in 1944 at St. Johns River Shipbuilding, USA. (Portside view looking forward)

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Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – Liberty Ship built in 1944 at St. Johns River Shipbuilding, USA; restored and converted to museum ship in 2008 – 2010 in Greece.

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Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – Liberty Ship built in 1944 at St. Johns River Shipbuilding, USA; restored and converted to museum ship in 2008 – 2010 in Greece. (Funnel)

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Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – Liberty Ship built in 1944 at St. Johns River Shipbuilding, USA; restored and converted to museum ship in 2008 – 2010 in Greece. (Funnel)

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Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – Liberty Ship built in 1944 at St. Johns River Shipbuilding, USA; restored and converted to museum ship in 2008 – 2010 in Greece. (Main deck looking forward)

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Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – Liberty Ship built in 1944 at St. Johns River Shipbuilding, USA; restored and converted to museum ship in 2008 – 2010 in Greece. (Main deck looking aft)

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Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – Liberty Ship built in 1944 at St. Johns River Shipbuilding, USA; restored and converted to museum ship in 2008 – 2010 in Greece. (Main deck looking forward)

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Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – Liberty Ship built in 1944 at St. Johns River Shipbuilding, USA (Wheelhouse essentially equipped)

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Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – Liberty Ship built in 1944 at St. Johns River Shipbuilding, USA (View of the portside stern)

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Museum Ship SS ‘Hellas Liberty’ – Liberty Ship built in 1944 at St. Johns River Shipbuilding, USA (detailed view of propeller; not original propeller)


 

© 2013-2014 Basil M Karatzas & Karatzas Marine Advisors & Co.  All Rights Reserved.

IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:  Access to this blog signifies the reader’s irrevocable acceptance of this disclaimer. No part of this blog can be reproduced by any means and under any circumstances, whatsoever, in whole or in part, without proper attribution or the consent of the copyright and trademark holders of this website. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that information here within has been received from sources believed to be reliable and such information is believed to be accurate at the time of publishing, no warranties or assurances whatsoever are made in reference to accuracy or completeness of said information, and no liability whatsoever will be accepted for taking or failing to take any action upon any information contained in any part of this website.  Thank you for the consideration.